The Ultimate Video Terminology List

Video production is fun and immersive, but there are a lot of terminology relating to equipment, technology and practices which can confuse, confound and – once mastered – comfort us while on shoots, edits and in the camera shop. This list is compiled from a number of sources, all of which are listed at the end.


1/2 Shot: A 1 shot is when a shot has one character shown in the frame. Alternatively, a 2 shot refers to two characters in the frame of a shot. Often refers to a shot where one character is shot head-on while the back of the second character's head is in the foreground of the shot. (Source: Glossary App)

16:9: This is the most popular screen ratio for televisions and monitors. It is the aspect ratio for high definition video. Sixteen units by nine units. (Source: Author)

180 Degree Rule: The 180 degree rule is a basic guideline regarding the on-screen spatial relationship between a character and another character or object within a scene. An imaginary line called the axis connects the characters, and by keeping the camera on one side of this axis for every shot in the scene, the first character is always frame right of the second character, who is then always frame left of the first. (Source: Glossary App)

3 Point/4 Point Lighting: This is a widely used lighting setup consisting of three lights; a key light, a fill light and a hair light. 4 point is similar to the 3 point setup, only it adds a backlight (Source: Author)



AD: Assistant Director. This is a position on set is more of a production role than a direction role. The AD commonly manages on-set logistics, tracks progress against a production schedule, prepping call sheets and managing the cast and extras. (Source: Author)

ADC: Analogue to Digital converter. A device that converts analog signals into digital signals. (Source:

ADR: Additional Dialogue Recording. Just like this one sounds – recording audio to be added to a project during editing or post. (Source: Author)

AGC (automatic gain control): A circuit for automatically controlling amplifier gain in order to maintain a constant output voltage with a varying input voltage within a predetermined range of input-to-output variation. (Source:

Aliasing: Something other than what it appears to be. Defects are typically seen as jaggies on diagonal lines and twinkling or brightening in picture detail. (Source: adapted from

Alpha Compositing (or simply "compositing"): The process of combining an image with a background to create a partial transparency. The alpha channel of footage is used to create multiple elements which are combined into a single composition. (Source: Term: Definition: Author)
Anamorphic: A technique for capturing 16:9 widescreen footage on a standard 4:3 aspect ratio camera. (Source: Glossary App)

Aperture: The effective diameter of the lens that controls the amount of light reaching the photoconductive or photo emitting image pickup sensor. (Source:

Artifact: A defect or distortion of the video image, introduced along the sequence from origination and image capture to final display. Artifacts may arise from the overload of channel capacity by excess signal bandwidth. Artifacts may also result from: sampling effects in temporal, spatial, or frequency domains; processing by the transfer functions; compromises and inadequacies in the system employed; cascading of minor defects; basically any other departure of the total system from “complete transparency” resulting in visual errors. (Source:

Aspect Ratio: The ratio of width to height for the frame of the televised picture. 4:3 for standard systems, 5:4 for 1K x 1K, and 16:9 for HDTV. Think of units – 16:9 is 16 equal units wide by 9 of the same units high. (Source:

AVCHD: Advanced Video Coding High Definition. A file-based format for the digital recording and playback of high-definition video. (Source: Author)



B-Roll: Video shot to act as supplemental or alternative footage to fill in, overlay, and transition around "A" footage, such as interviews, documentary footage or in something like a flashback sequence. (Source: Author)

Background Plates: Scenes, photos or animations that can be inserted – or composited – into greenscreen scenes. (Source: Glossary App)

Bandwidth: The range of signal frequencies that a piece of audio or video equipment can encode or decode; the difference between the limiting frequencies of a continuous frequency band. Video uses higher frequency than audio, thus requires a wider bandwidth. (Source:

Barn Doors: Metal flaps fitted to film lights which allow direction and focus of lights, as well as provide a degree of protection to those around the lights, in the event of a bulb shattering. (Source: Author)

Bar Test Pattern (SMPTE): Special test pattern for adjusting color TV receivers or color encoders. The upper portion consists of vertical bars of saturated colors and white. The power horizontal bars have black and white areas and I and Q signals. (Source:

Bit: Short for "Binary Digit". The smallest piece of binary digital data and is represented by either 0 or 1. (Source:

Bit Depth: The number of levels that a pixel might have, such as 256 with an 8-bit depth or 1024 with a 10-bit depth. (Source:

Bit Rate: a) The rate at which the compressed bit stream is delivered from the storage medium to the input of a decoder. The digital equivalent of analog bandwidth. b) The speed at which bits are transmitted, usually expressed in bit/s (sometimes abbreviated "bps"). video information, in a digitized image for example, is transferred, recorded, and reproduced through the production process at some bit rate appropriate to the nature and capabilities of the origination, the channel, and the receptor. c) The amount of data transported in a given amount of time, usually defined in Mbit/s. Bit rate is one means used to define the amount of compression used on a video signal. The uncompressed D1 format has a bit rate of 270 Mbit/s. MPEG-1 has a bit rate of 1.2 Mbit/s. (Source:

Blooming: This effect is sometimes called whiter-than-white. Blooming occurs when the white voltage level is exceeded and screen objects become fuzzy and large. The defocusing of regions of a picture where brightness is excessive. (Source:

Bounce: Sudden variations in picture presentation (brightness, size, etc.,) independent of scene illumination. (Source:

Burned-In-Image: Also called burn. An image which persists in a fixed position in the output signal of a camera tube after the camera has been turned to a different scene or, on a monitor screen. (Source:



Candela: A unit for measuring luminous intensity. One candela is approximately equal to the amount of light energy generated by an ordinary candle. Since 1948 a more precise definition of a candela has become: “the luminous intensity of a black body of 1 square centimeter heated up to a temperature at which platinum converges from a liquid state to a solid.” (Source:

Charge Coupled Device (CCD): a) A semiconductor device that converts optical images to electronic signals. CCDs are the most commonly found type of image sensor in consumer camcorders and video cameras. b) Serial storage technology that uses MOS capacitors. c) A solid-state image sensor that converts light energy to electricity. (Source:

Chroma: The quality of color that embraces both hue and saturation. White, black, and grays have no chroma. (Source:

Chromatic Aberration: An optical defect of a lens that causes different colors or wavelengths of light to be focused at different distances from the lens. It is seen as color fringes or halos along edges and around every point in the image. (Source:

Clipping: An electronic limit usually imposed in cameras to avoid overly bright or dark signals. When improperly applied can result in loss of picture information in very bright or very dark areas; Also used in switchers to set the cutoff point for mixing video signals. The electronic process of shearing off the peaks of either the white or black excursions of a video signal for limiting purposes. Sometimes, clipping is performed prior to modulation, and sometimes to limit the signal, so it will not exceed a predetermined level. (Source:

CMOS (complementary metal-oxide-semiconductor): A type of digital camera sensor. (Source:

CODEC (Coding/Decoding): a) The algorithm used to capture analog video or audio in digital form. b) Used to implement the physical combination of the coding and decoding circuits. c) A device for converting signals from analog to coded digital and then back again for use in digital transmission schemes. Most codecs employ proprietary coding algorithms for data compression. (Source:

Compression: a) The process of electronically processing a digital video picture to make it use less storage or to allow more video to be sent down a transmission channel. b) The process of removing picture data to decrease the size of a video image. c) The reduction in the volume of data from any given process so that more data can be stored in a smaller space. There are a variety of compression schemes that can be applied to data of which MPEG-1 and MPEG-2 are called lossy since the data produced by compression is not totally recoverable. There are other compression schemes that are totally recoverable, but the degree of compression is much more limited. (Source:

Contrast: The range of light to dark values in a picture or the ratio between the maximum and minimum brightness values. (Source:

Contrast Range (Ratio): The ratio between the whitest and blackest portions of a TV image. (Source:

Crosstalk: An undesired signal from a different channel interfering with the desired signal. (Source:



DAT: An acronym for Digital Audio Tape. Developed by Sony in 1987, it looks similar to an analogue audio cassette but contains professional quality digital information. It is capable of high fidelity music reproduction. (Source:

dB (Decibel): A measure of the power ratio of two signals. In system use, a measure of the voltage ratio of two signals, provided they are measured across a common impedance. (Source:

Decoder: Device used to recover the component signals from a composite (encoded) source. Decoders are used in displays and in various processing hardware where components signals are required from a composite source such as composite chroma keying or color correction equipment. Device that changes digital signals to analog, or reconstructs information (data) by performing the inverse (reverse) functions of an encode process. (Source:

Definition: The aggregate of fine details available on-screen. The higher the definition of an image, the greater the number of details [that can be discerned by the human eye or displayed]. During video recording and subsequent playback, several factors can conspire to cause a loss of definition. Among these are the limited frequency response of magnetic tapes and signal losses associated with electronic circuitry employed in the recording process. These losses occur because fine details appear in the highest frequency region of a video signal and this portion is usually the first casualty of signal degradation. Each additional generation of a videotape results in fewer and fewer fine details as losses are accumulated. (Source:

Depth of Field: The in-focus range of a lens or optical system around an item of interest. It is measured from the distance behind an object of interest, to the distance in front of the object of interest, when the viewing lens is specifically focused on the object of interest. Depth of field depends on subject-to-camera distance, focal length of the lens, and f-stop. (Source:

Depth of Focus: The range of sensor-to-lens distance for which the image formed by the lens is clearly focused. (Source:

Digital Imager: A fundamental component in every digital camera. The imager records the view received from the camera lens. (Source:

Digital Signal: a) An electronic signal where every different value from the real-life excitation (sound, light) has a different value of binary combinations (words) that represent the analog signal. b) An analog signal that has been converted to a digital form. (Source:

Digital Signal Processing (DSP): When applied to video cameras, DSP means that the analog signal from the CCD sensors is converted to a digital signal. It is then processed for signal separation, bandwidth settings and signal adjustments. After processing, the video signal either remains in the digital domain for recording by a DVR or is converted back into an analog signal for recording or transmission. DSP is also used in other parts of the video chain, including DVRs, and switching and routing devices. (Source:

Distortion: The deviation of the received signal waveform from that of the original transmitted waveform. (Source:

Dynamic Range: The difference between the maximum acceptable signal level and the minimum acceptable signal level. (Source:

DVD: An acronym for "Digital Versatile Disk". It is the same size as a compact disc (CD). A single layer DVD has a storage capacity of 4.7gb and a dual layer disc has a capacity of 8.5gb. (Source:



EIA Sync: The signal used for the synchronizing of scanning specified in EIA Standards RS-170, RS-330, RS-343, or subsequent issues.

Equalizer: An electronic circuit that introduces compensation for frequency discriminative effects of elements within the television system, particularly long coaxial transmission systems. (Source:



Field of View: The maximum angle of view that can be seen through a lens. (Source:

?Focal Length (of a lens): The distance from the focal point to the principal point of the lens. The focal length is usually measured in millimeters of the lens. Focal length is an indication of the lens capability to capture a wide angle of view or a narrow view of objects that are far away (telephoto). (Source:

Focal Plane: A plane (through the focal point) at right angles to the principal point of the lens. (Source:

Focal Point: The point at which a lens or mirror will focus parallel incident radiation. (Source:

Frame: The total area occupied by the image. (Source:

Frame Rate (also known as frame frequency): a) The rate at which frames of video data are scanned on the screen. In an NTSC system, the frame rate is 29.97 frames per second. For PAL, the frame rate is 25 frames per second. b) The number of frames per second at which a video clip is displayed. c) The rate at which frames are output from a video decoding device or stored in memory. (Source:

F-Stop (also known as f-number or f-system): The speed or ability of a lens to pass light. It is calculated by dividing the focal length of the lens by its diameter. The f-stop also is a factor in more areas of focus in the image known as Depth of Field. (Source:



Gaffer: The head of the electrical department. (Source: Author)

Gain: An increase in voltage or power, usually expressed in dB. (Source:

Gamma: A numerical value, or the degree of contrast in a video picture, which is the exponent of that power law which is used to approximate the curve of output magnitude versus input magnitude over the region of interest. Since picture monitors have a nonlinear relationship between the input voltage and brightness, the signal must be correspondingly pre distorted. Gamma correction is always done at the source (camera). (Source:

Gamma Correction: To provide for a linear transfer characteristic from input to output device. (Source:

Ghost: A spurious image resulting from an echo. (Source:

Gray Scale: Variations in value from white, through shades of gray, to black on a display. (Source:



H.264: Also known as MPEG-4 AVC (Advanced Video Coding) it is now one of the most commonly used recording formats for high definition video. It offers significantly greater compression than previous formats. (Source:

High Pass Filter: An electronic filter that attenuates audio frequencies below a certain frequency and allows them above that frequency. (Source:

Hue: Corresponds to colors such as red, blue, etc. A color wheel contains basic pigments. All the hues of the rainbow encircle the cone’s perimeter. The wavelength of the color that allows color to be distinguished such as red, blue and green. Often used synonymously with the term tint. It is the dominant wavelength that distinguishes a color such as red, yellow, etc. Most commonly, video hue is influenced by a camera’s white balance or scene lighting. Video color processors, such as the video equalizer, are the main tools used to adjust and correct hue problems. (Source:

Hum: Electrical disturbance at the power supply frequency or harmonics thereof. (Source:



Image: A bit stream duplicate of the original data. b) An imitation or representation of a person or thing, drawn, painted, photographed, axis etc. (Source:

Image Plane: The plane in which an image produced by an optical system is formed; if the object plane is perpendicular to the optical axis, the image plane will ordinarily also be perpendicular to the axis. (Source:

Incident Light: The direct light that falls on an object. (Source:

Insertion Loss: The signal strength loss when a piece of equipment is inserted into a line. (Source:

Interline Transfer: A technology of CCD design, where rows of pixels are output from the camera. The sensor’s active pixel area and storage register are both contained within the active image area. This differs from frame transfer cameras that move all active pixels to a storage register outside of the active area. (Source:

Interlaced Scanning: A technique of combining two television fields in order to produce a full frame. The two fields are composed of only odd and only even lines, which are displayed one after the other but with the physical position of all the lines interleaving each other, hence interlace. (Source:

Iris: An adjustable aperture built into a camera lens to permit control of light transmission through the lens. (Source:



Jitter: Small, rapid variations in a waveform due to mechanical disturbances or to changes in the characteristic of components. Supply voltages, imperfect synchronizing signals, circuits, frequency pulses, etc. (Source:



kHz: Symbol for kilohertz. It is a unit of frequency. One kilohertz is equal to 1,000 hertz or 1,000 cycles per second. (Source:



Lens: One or more pieces of curved optical glass or similar material designed to form an image of an object by converging or diverging rays of light from the object. (Source:

Lens Preset Positioning: Follower Pots are installed on lens that allows feedback to the controller information relevant to zoom and focus positioning allowing the controller to quickly adjust to a preselected scene and arrive in focus at the proper focal length automatically. (Source:

Lens Speed: The ability of a lens to transmit light, represented as the ratio of the focal length to the diameter of the lens. The largest lens opening (smallest f-number) at which the lens can be set. A fast lens transmits more light and has a larger opening than a slow lens. (Source:

Letterbox: A method of displaying widescreen video on a screen with a different aspect ratio by leaving a space, usually black bars, above and below the image. (Source:

Loop: Either a a) repeating section of audio or video material, or of cartoon cells. b) a synonym for "post-sync": dialog replacement (i.e. dubbing) during post-processing to improve audio quality. (Source:

Lowpass Filter: A filter that attenuates frequencies above a specified frequency and allows those below that value to pass. (Source:

Lumen (LM): A unit of measurement of the amount of brightness that comes from a light source. Lumens define “luminous flux,” which is energy within the range of frequencies we perceive as light. (Source:

Luminance (Photometric Brightness): Luminous intensity of any surface in a given direction per unit of projected area of the surface viewed from that direction. The amount of brightness, measured in lumens that is given off by a pixel or area on a screen. (Source:

Luminance Signal (See also, Y Signal.): That portion of the NTSC color television signal which contains the luminance or brightness information. (Source:

Lux: SI unit of illumination, equal to one lumen per square meter. Lux is a measurement in light intensity. (Source:



Mbps: Abbreviation of megabits per second. One megabit is equal to one million bits or 1,000 kilobits. It is used to measure high data transfer speeds of connections such as Ethernet and cable modems. (Source:

Megabyte: A measure of computer memory or storage. It is one million bytes (in the context of computer memory, sometimes used to mean 1,048,576 (2 to the power 20) bytes). (Source:

Megahertz: A unit of frequency equal to one million hertz or cycles per second. Usually abbreviated to MHz. (Source:

Megapixel: The term pixel comes from the phrase picture element. One megapixel is equal to 1,000,000 (one million) pixels. For the most part, the larger number of pixels, the better the quality of the picture. (Source:

Modulation: The process, or results of the process, whereby some characteristic of one signal is varied in accordance with another signal. The modulated signal is called the carrier. The carrier may be modulated in three fundamental ways: by varying the amplitude, called amplitude modulation; by varying the frequency, called frequency modulation; by varying the phase, called phase modulation. (Source:

Monitor: A device that accepts video signals from a computer or video camera and displays information on a screen; a video display. (Source:

Monochrome: Black and white with all shades of gray. (Source:

Motion Picture Expert Group (MPEG): A group of standards for encoding and compressing audiovisual information such as movies, video, and music. MPEG compression is as high as 200:1 for low-motion video of VHS quality, and broadcast quality can be achieved at 6 Mbit/s. Audio is supported at rates from 32 kbit/s to 384 kbit/s for up to two stereo channels. (Source:



National Television Systems Committee (NTSC): A committee that worked with the FCC in formulating standards for the present day United States color television system. (Source:

Neutral Density Filter (ND filter): A filter that attenuates light evenly over the visible light spectrum. It reduces the light entering a lens, thus forcing the iris to open to its maximum. (Source:

Noise: The word noise originated in audio practice and refers to random spurts of electrical energy or interference. In some cases, it will produce a “salt-and-pepper” pattern over the televised picture. Heavy noise is sometimes referred to as snow. (Source:

Non-Composite Video: A video signal containing all information except sync. (Source:



Output: The signal level at the output of an amplifier or other device. (Source:



Packet: One unit of binary data capable of being routed through a computer network. To improve communication performance and reliability, each message sent between two network devices is often subdivided into packets by the underlying hardware and software. (Source:

PAL: Short for Phase Alternate Line. The TV broadcasting system used in Europe and other countries. (Source:

Pan and Tilt: A device upon which a camera can be mounted that allows movement in both the azimuth (pan) and in the vertical plane (tilt). (Source:

Pan/Tilt Preset Positioning: Follower pots are installed on pan/tilt unit to allow feedback to the controller and provides information relevant to horizontal and vertical positioning, allowing the controller to quickly adjust to a pre-selected scene automatically. (Source:

Patch Panel: A panel where circuits are terminated and facilities provided for interconnecting between circuits by means of jacks and plugs. (Source:

Pixel: Short for Picture Element. The most basic unit of an image displayed on a computer or video display screen. Pixels are generally arranged in rows and columns; a given combination among the pixels of various brightness and color values forms an image. (Source:

Primary Colors: Three colors wherein no mixture of any two can produce the third. In color television these are the additive primary colors red, blue and green. (Source:

Processed Image: Any image that has undergone enhancement, restoration or other operation. (Source:

Progressive Scan: Display scan pattern where each line of the frame is scanned sequentially. (Source:



Raw Image Format: A camera raw image file contains minimally processed data from the image sensor of either a digital camera, image or motion picture film scanner. Raw files are so named because they are not yet processed and therefore are not ready to be printed or edited with a bitmap graphics editor. Normally, the image is processed by a raw converter in a wide-gamut internal colorspace where precise adjustments can be made before conversion to a positive file format such as TIFF or JPEG for storage, printing, or further manipulation, which often encodes the image in a device-dependent colorspace. (Source:

Real-Time: Of or relating to systems that update information at the same rate as they receive data, enabling them to direct or control a process such as video recording and display. Sometimes referred to as live or real-life timing of events. (Source:

Resolution: The act, process, or capability of distinguishing between two separate but adjacent parts or stimuli, such as elements of detail in an image, or similar colors. (Source:

RF (Radio Frequency): Frequency at which coherent electromagnetic radiation of energy is useful for communication purposes. Also, the entire range of such frequencies. (Source:



Saturation: In color, the degree to which a color is diluted with white light or is pure. The vividness of a color, described by such terms as bright, deep, pastel, or pale. Saturation is directly related to the amplitude of the chrominance signal. (Source:

Shutter: Ability to control the integration (of light) time to the sensor to less than 1/60 second; e.g., stop motion of moving traffic. (Source:

Signal-to-Noise Ratio (S/N): The ratio between useful television signal and disturbing noise or snow. (Source:

SMPTE (Society of Motion Picture and Television Engineers): A global organization, based in the United States, which, among other things, sets standards for baseband visual communications. This includes film as well as video standards. (Source:

Snow: Heavy random noise. (Source:

Streaming: A low-bit-rate encoding format intended for use over networks and the Internet. Streaming files match the encoded bit rate to the connection speed of the user, so the remote viewer can play audio or video with minimal stoppage without first downloading the entire video file. (Source:

Synchronize: To keep two sequences playing at the same rate (in sync). A slide show or a series of video clips can be synced to the beat on an audio track. A talking-head video needs to maintain lip-sync, so that the audio matches the mouth movements of the speaker. (Source:



Target Size: A generalized use class aspect that specifies the size of the object of interest with respect to the field of view. (Source:

Tearing: A picture condition in which groups of horizontal lines are displaced in an irregular manner. (Source:

Test Pattern: A chart especially prepared for checking overall performance of a television system. It contains various combinations of lines and geometric shapes. The camera is focused on the chart, and the pattern is viewed at the monitor for fidelity. (Source:

Time Lapse Video Recording: The process by which images are recorded at less than the standard rate of frames per second (NTSC — 29.97; PAL — 25.00) thus extending the period of time that can be covered by the storage medium. (Source:

Transcode: To convert from one compression format to another (that is, from DV video from a camcorder to MPEG-2 for DVD). Preferably done intelligently to minimize loss of quality from repeated compression, and not requiring fully decompressing the input and then recompressing to the output. (Source:

Transients: Signals which exist for a brief period of time prior to the attainment of a steady-state condition. These may include overshoots, damped sinusoidal waves, etc. (Source:



Use Case: In software and systems engineering, a use case is a description of a system’s behavior in response to external stimuli. This technique is used to develop functional requirements by specifying the system’s behavior through scenarios. This concept can be expanded to apply to video systems that are used to perform specific tasks. A use case is a combination of the scene being observed and the task being performed by a viewer (or analyst). (Source:

Usage Timeframe: A generalized use class aspect that specifies the timeframe in which a video be used. As in, will the video be used in real-time or will it be recorded? See also, the Usage Timeframe topic for video quality requirements considerations. (Source:



Variable Bit Rate (VBR): A compression scheme in which each unit of input material can be compressed to different sizes. For MPEG-2 video, for example, this means that “easier” sequences (that is, with no motion) can compress to very small sizes, whereas “hard” sequences (with lots of motion and scene cuts) can compress to much larger sizes. VBR compression can take better advantage of the overall available bandwidth of a video transmission or DVD player by allocating the available bits intelligently to the difficult parts of a sequence. (Source:

Video Electronic Standards Association (VESA): VESA’s mission is to promote and develop timely, relevant, open display and display interface standards, ensuring interoperability, and encouraging innovation and market growth. Its vision is to be one of the leading, worldwide standards organizations and internationally recognized voices in the video electronics industry. (Source:

Video: The electronic representation of a sequence of images, depicting either stationary or moving scenes. It may include audio. (Source:

Video Amplifier: A wideband amplifier used for passing picture signals. (Source:

Video Band: The frequency band width utilized to transmit a composite video signal. (Source:

Video Distribution Amplifier: A device used to divide single video signals, while boosting their strength for delivery to multiple video devices. (Source:



Y Signal: A signal transmitted in color television containing brightness information. This signal produces a black-and-white picture on a standard monochrome receiver. In a color picture it supplies fine detail and brightness information (see also,luminance signal). (Source:



Zoom: To enlarge or reduce, on a continuously variable basis, the size of a televised image primarily by varying lens focal length. (Source:

Zoom Lens: An optical system of continuously variable focal length, the focal plane remaining in a fixed position. (Source:



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Russ Fairley
Russ Fairley
Russ Fairley is a producer, editor and motion graphic designer. He also writes for Videomaker and several other publications.

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